CIS1 - Kurtz  Santa Monica College 

SOFTWARE BASICS

 

Files 

 

Contain data

Folders

May contain data or other folders (sub-folders)

Two types of System Software

Operating Systems
Utility Programs (utilities)

Operating System

The set of programs containing instructions that coordinates all of the activities among computer resources.

Utility Programs

Utility
A type of system software that performs a specific task, usually related to managing a computer, its devices, or its programs.
Printer Drivers, Memory Manager, File Manager, Task Scheduler, Uninstaller,

Memory Manager

Optimizes use of RAM
Prevents memory conflicts between programs

Drivers

Contains specialized commands for devices on computer
Necessary for the mouse, keyboard, monitor, printers, disks.

Printer Drivers

Queues multiple print jobs for same printer in buffer
Interprets and formats data for printer

Single User Operating Systems

Supports one user at a time (e.g., DOS).

Multitasking Operating System

Able to run multiple jobs (programs) simultaneously
Windows, Mac OS, Linux

Multiuser Operating System

Able to support more than one user running different jobs simultaneously
Windows Professional & Enterprise versions
UNIX & Linux

Multiprocessing Operating System

Supports multiple CPUs in one computer
Coordinates workload and memory allocation
Most modern operating systems

 

Memory resident software

Always present in RAM
May not be swapped

Fault tolerant computers

Contain redundant hardware
Will continue to operate despite some hardware failure

Used in “mission critical” systems such as airborne and space applications, banking, ATMs.

File Manager

Manages file “directories”
Copy and format disks
Displays files on disk
Monitors and displays free and used space on disk

 

Windows Explorer 

 

Useful for viewing and manipulating files

 

Moving and Copying Files 

 

Easy to do in a GUI environment Dragging an icon to another folder on same disk moves file Dragging an icon to a folder on different disk copies file Shift and Control keys allow copy and move of file groups

 

Moving Windows

 

Drag title bar

 

Graphical User Interface 

 

Uses icons and a pointing device

 

Command‑line Interface 

 

Commands must be typed in

Plug and Play

OS automatically recognizes new hardware, installs and configures driver.

 

Path 

 

Precise hierarchical description of a storage location within a computer system or network Tells us exactly where in a disk's filing hierarchy a file is located Example: C:\LETTERS\Old\Dave.doc

 

C Drive

 

Typically the default "hard drive" or "hard disk" on a Windows computer

     

 

Run an application 

 

Double Click it's icon
Click its program name on a menu or submenu 
Applications must be installed prior to use

 

Select a file 

 

Click on it's icon

 

 

Minimize Box 

 

Shrinks window to a button on the task bar

 

 

Maximize Box 

 

Causes window to fill screen

 

 

Resize Box 

 

Causes maximized window return to previous size

 

 

Close Box 

 

Closes a window

 

 

Moving Windows

 

Drag title bar

 

 

Windows Clipboard 

 

Used for cut, copy, and paste Uses temporary or "volatile" memory

 

 

Pull‑down menus

 

Ellipsis points (...) indicate a dialog box will appear 
Check mark indicates option is selected 
Show keyboard shortcuts 
Arrows indicate another menu will appear 
Dimmed words indicate choice is not available

 

 

Dialogue Box

 

Simple or complex
Request additional information
Appears when info is required, an irreversible act is pending, or for error messages

 

 

 

 

Presentation Software

Presents information as slides, outlines handouts, notes.

 

Personal Information Manager

PIM
May employee an appointment calendar, address book, notepad, other features.

 

Computer Aided Design

CAD
On-line design of mechanical, electronic, biological, architectural, and other systems.

 

Legal Software

Assists in real estate contracts, estate planning, writing wills.

 

Desktop Publishing

DTP
Creates newsletters, brochures, advertisements, etc.

 

Clip art

Included in image galleries
Collections of drawings, diagrams, and photographs
Included with many applications.

 

Reference Software

Encyclopedias, dictionaries, health/medical guides, travel dictionaries.

 

Software Suite

Collection or related applications sold as a single package.

 

Shareware

Copyrighted software
Distributed on-line
Users must purchase license following free trial period

 

Freeware

Copyrighted software
Distributed on-line
Users are not required to purchase a license

 

Commericial Software

Copyrighted software
Typically sold in computer stores and on-line
Users purchase license in order to install and use software