CIS1 - Kurtz  Santa Monica College 

INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS

 

Batch Processing 

Circa 1960s  
Each batch of work is scheduled in advance and processed in turn  
Punched cards

Time Sharing 

Circa 1970s  
Many users on-line simultaneously  
Terminals connected to a host computer  
Command Line Interface (CLI)

Personal Computing 

Circa 1980s  
Desktop Computers  
One computer per user  
Graphic User Interface (GUI) uses icons to represent programs, folders, and files

Networked & Mobile Computing 

Circa 1990s  
Dozens (or thousands) of individual computers networked  
The Internet  
Laptop and Palmtop computers  
Wireless connections

Convergence

Circa 2000s
Computing and telecommunications overlapping
Reliance on networking technologies, especially the Internet
Internet access widely available
Distributed server functions

Imbedded Microcomputers 

Smallest and least powerful type of computer  
Imbedded in another product (toys, cars, avionics) 

Mobile Computers & 
Mobile Devices

Notebook computers
Tablet PCs
Handheld computers
Smart Phones
PDAs (Personal Digital Assistants

Personal Computers

Desktop Computers
Workstations

Midrange Servers 

Used to support many users at once (office environment) or for special applications (assembly lines, lab data collection)  
Faster and more powerful than micros

Mainframes 

Large, fast, and expensive  
Hundreds or thousands of simultaneous users  
Used for applications requiring extensive calculations  
Used for applications requiring large volumes of data  
Banks, insurance companies, large corporations, governments

Supercomputers 

Very fast and expensive
Analysis of scientific and engineering data

Computer Hardware 

Input Device(s)  
Output Device(s)  
Central Processing Unit  
Storage Device(s)

Application Software 

Practical programs for work or games  
Office applications: word processing, spreadsheet, database, presentation, scheduling, desktop publishing

System Software 

Operating Systems: Windows, DOS, Mac OS, UNIX, Linux, and others  
Utilities: Printer Drivers, Memory Manager, File Manager, Task Scheduler, Uninstaller, others.

Operating System

Controls the computer  
Controls all devices connected to the computer  
Interfaces between you and the computer

Programming language

Used to write system and application software
BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL, C, C++, PERL, Java, Visual Basic, C#, PL/1, Pascal, Forthe, LISP, ALGOL, ALGOL 68, more

Four Computer Processes

Input
Output
Processing
Storage

Local Area Network

LAN
Interconnection of computers that are geographically near
Used to share resources and information

Wide Area Network

WAN
Similar to LAN, but geography is not a consideration
May interconnect LANs